Diverse symptomatology makes Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) difficult to treat, and currently there are no approved prevention or treatment methods for FXS. Current therapies, including pharmaceutical and behavioural interventions, offer a patchwork of solutions that have limited efficacy and high toxicity. The current study aims to examine psilocybin as a safe treatment alternative with the ability to improve markers of cognition, communication, mood, behavior as well as markers of neuroinflammation, serotonin levels in exosomes, and neuroplasticity at sub-hallucinogenic doses (microdosing).
The overall objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of low-dose psilocybin as a therapeutic option for individuals living with FXS and to improve diagnostic parameters of FXS, as well as therapeutic responses with the use of biomarkers.
London, Ontario N6B 3L1, Canada
18 to 50 years of age
BMI > 18.3
Diagnosis of Fragile X syndrome with a molecular genetic confirmation of the full FMR1 mutation (>200 CGG repeats) or the other loss of function mutations of the FMR1 gene (SNVs and deletions of the gene) based on evidence provided by caregiver from prior assessment
IQ between 40 and 85 points as reported by caregiver based on prior assessment
Subject has the ability to understand and provides voluntary, written, informed consent to participate in the study
For subjects who are not their own legal guardian, or do not have the capacity to provide informed consent, subject's parent/legal authorized guardian is able to understand and sign an informed consent form to participate in the study.
Caregiver (parent, guardian, or other legally authorized representative) who is willing to participate in the whole study and provides informed consent
Subject is able to swallow tablets and capsules
Individual is not of child-bearing potential, defined as those who have undergone a sterilization procedure (e.g. hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, bilateral tubal ligation, complete endometrial ablation) or have been post-menopausal for at least 1 year prior to screening
Individuals of child-bearing potential must have a negative baseline urine pregnancy test and agree to use a medically approved method of birth control for the duration of the study. All hormonal birth control must have been in use for a minimum of three months. Acceptable methods of birth control include:
Abstinence (only in cases when abstinence is the usual and customary form of birth control for the participant)
Hormonal contraceptives including oral contraceptives, hormone birth control patch (Ortho Evra), vaginal contraceptive ring (NuvaRing), injectable contraceptives (Depo-Provera, Lunelle), or hormone implant (Norplant System)
Non-heterosexual lifestyle or agrees to use contraception if planning on changing to heterosexual partner(s)
Vasectomy of partner at least 6 months prior to screening
Individuals who are pregnant, breast feeding, or planning to become pregnant during the study
Allergy, sensitivity, or intolerance to the investigational product's active or inactive ingredients
Regular use of medications that may have problematic interactions with psilocybin, including but not limited to dopamine agonists, MAO inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR) antagonists, antipsychotics, and stimulants
Urine drug test containing non-prescribed drugs of abuse (non-prescribed opioids, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, cocaine) at screening and day of first treatment. Urine cannabinoid concentrations >50 ng/ml will suggest heavy marijuana use and will be a threshold for excluding potential subjects
Having uncontrolled hypertension defined as an average systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or an average diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, with at least 4 BP assessments completed.
Have any of the following cardiovascular conditions: coronary artery disease, congenital long QT (time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) syndrome, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac ischemia, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, tachycardia, artificial heart valve, a clinically significant screening ECG abnormality, or any other significant cardiovascular condition
Significant cardiovascular event in the past 6 months. Participants with no significant cardiovascular event on stable medication may be included after assessment by the QI on a case-by-case basis
Subjects with a history of seizure disorder except those who are currently receiving treatment with anti-epileptics and have been seizure-free for 3 months preceding screening or have been seizure-free for 3 years if not currently receiving anti-epileptics.
Reported history of moderate to severe hepatic impairment
Type I or insulin-dependent Type II diabetes
Meet DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia spectrum or other psychotic disorders, including major depressive disorder with psychotic features, or Bipolar I or Bipolar II Disorder
Meet DSM-5 criteria for a moderate or severe alcohol or drug use disorder in the past 12 months
Subjects who plan to initiate or change pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions during the course of the study
Medical illness based on physical examination, ECG and routine testing that may complicate cardiovascular safety or drug metabolism or excretion, such as metabolic disease, severe cardiac disease, or kidney or liver failure as assessed by the QI. QI assessments will be based on clinical history provided by caregivers and/or physicians. Any participant requiring further assessment will be referred accordingly or excluded by the QI on a case-by-case basis.*
Current or history of any significant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, exceptions to be determined by the QI
Unstable hypertension. Treatment on a stable dose of medication for at least 3 months will be considered by the QI on a case-by-case basis
Major surgery in the past 3 months or individuals who have planned surgery during the course of the study. Participants with minor surgery will be considered on a case-by-case basis by the QI
Participation in other clinical research studies 30 days prior to enrollment as assessed by the QI.
Any other condition or lifestyle factor, that, in the opinion of the QI, may adversely affect the participant's ability to complete the study or its measures or pose significant risk to the participant * Blood draw to obtain laboratory samples for analysis will be avoided in this study due to the undue stress it places on this clinical population and the high safety profile of the medication at the dosage being used.
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An Investigation of Psilocybin on Behavioural and Cognitive Symptoms of Adults With Fragile X Syndrome 0 reviewsWrite Your Review
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Subjects and caregivers will return to the clinic for a baseline visit within three weeks of their screening completion. Baseline visit will include saliva/buccal swab collection, and clinician and self-report assessments for subjects and caregivers. These assessments will include the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Third Edition (VABS-3), Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I), Visual Analog Scale-Treatment Satisfaction (VAS-TS), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Systematic Assessment For Treatment Emergent Events (SAFTEE). Digital assessments may also be performed at the baseline visit or at home at the discretion of the qualified investigator. Digital assessments will include the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery Modified for Intellectual Disabilities (NIH-TCB), the Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Multifaceted Empathy Test for juveniles (MET-J).
The study drug will be dispensed in blister packs to monitor adherence and improve subject compliance. Blister packs will be prepared and distributed at each subsequent visit. Subjects will return to the clinic for study visits on day 8, 15, 22, and 28 (study end date). Subjects and caregivers will complete the assessments described above. Subjects will provide additional saliva/buccal swab samples at day 15 and day 28.