Tourniquet, a compressing device, otherwise its use in intravenous regional anesthesia, is commonly used in particular orthopedic surgeries. From the previous documented effectiveness and safety of intravenous (IV) administration of ketorolac in the circulatory-isolated limb as a part of intravenous regional anesthesia; we hypothesized that in orthopedic surgeries done with tourniquet, intravenous (IV) administration of ketorolac after tourniquet inflation, will act as intravenous regional analgesia. So, it will prolong the postoperative analgesic duration as a primary outcome.
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II
Elective unilateral lower limb orthopedic surgery with tourniquet under spinal anesthesia
Body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2
Allergy to ketorolac
Had renal, asthmatic, vascular (Raynaud's syndrome) disease, hematological anemias
Had any history of gastrointestinal tract inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, or perforation besides
Edema in the operated limb grade ≥ 3
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All patients will receive spinal anesthesia aiming for at least T12-L1 level. Postoperative standard analgesia will be paracetamol and diclofenac, given for both groups.